Dengue – Trend, Symptoms and Prevention




The virus that causes dengue fever is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and, to a lesser extent, Ae are the main vectors of this disease. The virus that causes dengue fever is known as dengue virus (DENV). There are four DENV serotypes, and a single infection can result in a total of four infections.

Current Scenario 

Over the past 20 years, dengue cases reported to WHO have increased more than eight-fold. Dengue fever is considered a year-round problem in Nepal, with the highest risk from June to September. Dengue fever with an endemic epidemic was first reported in 2004. The majority of cases were localized and all four serotypes were confirmed to be present in Nepal.

According toauthorities, as of September 13, 2022, there are about 11,065 cases, 424 in 2021, 17,992 in 2019, and 811 in 2018.

The top 10 districts have reported the highest number of cases 9226 i.e. 83% of the total  cases. 

District Number of cases
Lalitpur 3,793
Kathmandu 2,569
Makwanpur 1,112
Rupandehi 594
Dang 378
Bhaktapur 220
Chitwan 179
Dhading 140
Kavrepalanchowk 129
Terhathum 112                  

                                                  Source: EDCD

Till 13th of September,2022, 9 death has been reported. 


Dengue fever should be suspected if a high fever (40°C/104°F) is accompanied by 2 of the following symptoms during the febrile period (2-7 days):

  • Severe headache
  • Pain in muscles and joints around eyes
  • Severe headache
  • Pain in muscles and joints around eyes
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Swollen glands
  • Rash.


If you already have dengue, avoid mosquito bites during the first week of illness. Since the virus may be circulating in the blood at this point, there is a risk of infecting fresh, uninfected mosquitoes and infecting others.

  • Mosquito Breeding Prevention
    • Restrict access to areas where mosquitoes lay their eggs through environmental controls and modifications.
    • Removal of artificial dwellings that can store water and proper disposal of solid waste.


  • Personal protection from bite of Mosquito
    • Use of personal home defense tools such as window screens, insect repellents, coils and vaporizers.
    • It is recommended that you wear clothing that protects your skin from mosquito bites.


  • Engagement of Community:
    • Educate your neighbors about the dangers of mosquito-borne diseases
    • Engage with your neighbors to increase long-term vector control efforts and mobilization.



In Nepal, the prevalence of dengue fever has increased dramatically. Previously, cases occurred only in the tropical lowland regions of the Terai, but they are increasingly being found at higher elevations and are becoming more common. likely to increase exponentially. Immediate action is needed to improve resource allocation and prioritization to mitigate the dengue epidemic in hardest-hit locations like the Kathmandu Valley.




Source:  (WHO) (EDCD)

Follow- up Policy Dialogue Meeting at Federal Level on ‘Exploring the Issue of Pesticides in Nepal: Practices, Policies and the Need for Multi-Sectoral Action’


 The Follow- up Policy Dialogue Meeting at Federal Level was carried out at Aranya Boutique Hotel, Nagpokhari by the participation from the different stakeholders on September 2nd, 2022. The people present for the meeting were from Plant Quarantine and Pesticide Management Centre, Nepal Health Research Council, Department of Food Technology and Quality Control, Ministry of Health and Agriculture and the Policy Research Institute A presentation from Dr. Abhinav Vaidya was shared and we had invited a few people as panelists so they could share a few words. The panelists for the meeting were Dr. Madan Kumar Upadhyaya (Division Chief of Quality Standard and Regulation Division of MoHP), Dr. Matina Joshi Vaidya (Director General of Department of Food Technology and Quality Control), Dr. Pradip Gyanwali (Executive Chief of NHRC), Mr. Manoj Pokhrel (Senior Plant Protection Officer of PQPMC), Mr. Achyut Prasad Dhakal (CSC Member and Former Secretary of MOLMAC) and Ms. Bimala Dahal (Local Organic Farmer).



To exchange knowledge/studies/experiences on the issue of pesticide

  • To create a platform where politicians and policymakers can voice their role and work to address the issue of chemical pesticide
  • To pave the way for discussion and foster multi-sectoral engagement in the planning and implementation of policies on pesticides in Nepal.
  • To identify and strengthen the relationship with key stakeholders at the federal level who are willing to help push the agendas on pesticide policies forward.


Key  Statements from the Panel members

Dr. Madan Kumar Upadhyaya

 Dr. Upadhyaya who is the Division Chief of Quality Standard and Regulation Division of Ministry of Health and Population key statements were as follows:

  • Health not just includes curative aspects but also includes preventive aspects
  • Pesticide management is very important but it is lagging behind
  • Community is the main area where pesticide related diseases are emerged
  • MOHP had tried to do many things regarding the issue of pesticide management but it is not enough
  • Lack of awareness and education regarding the issue
  • No coordination among the stakeholders
  • During Policy formulation it is very important to adapt multisectoral approach, its minimization is not possible by the effort of the single sector
  • Lack of human resources and no proper testing


Mr. Sailesh Kumar Jha

Mr Jha who is the Deputy Director General from the Department of Food Technology and Quality Control key statements were as follows:

  • There is a lack of coordination among the concerned stakeholders
  • Problems related to the access of database related to pesticide
  • Lacking of a proper mechanism
  • There is also lack of institutional capability and human resource that needs to be tackled for pesticide minimization


Dr. Pradip Gyanwali

Dr. Gyanwali who is the Executive Chief of Nepal Health and Research Council key statements were as follows:

  • Ministry level should take ownership
  • Pesticide is not only associated with human health but also related to animal health and agriculture, it also affects mental health of human being so multisectoral approach is very essential
  • Series of discussion for this issue is necessary
  • Message related to this topic should be dispersed for awareness purpose


Mr. Manoj Pokhrel

Mr. Pokhrel who is the Senior Plant Protection Officer of Plant Quarantine and Pesticide Management Centre key statements were as follows:

  • Registration work is done by PQPMC and PQPMC has been trying to update the website
  • There is a lack of human resource and also budget for pesticide management
  • Lack of capacity and formal education of the agrovets
  • License are provided to the agrovets on the basis of one- or two-day trainings
  • Pesticide management act has been established


Mr. Achyut Prasad Dhakal

 Mr. Dhakal who is the former secretary of Ministry of Land Management, Agriculture and Cooperative and the Central Steering Committee Member of FHEN key statements were as follows:

  • There are many advantages of pesticides as well it helps to manage pest and kill insects.
  • Pesticide is mostly used in Cotton, it leads to different hazards
  • Lack of manpower is a major issue which should be solved for pesticide minimization
  • Institutional arrangements are necessary
  • Focus on empowering human resource
  • Focus on monitoring and supervision
  • Directives and guidelines should be prepared for the safe use of pesticides
  • And it should also include about the proper storage and disposal of the pesticide container, Post-harvest interval (waiting period) and maximum residual limit
  • Proper data should be maintained about Post Harvest Interval
  • Awareness should be created about maximum residual limit
  • Appropriate data is required to work on these guidelines
  • Knowledge about Acceptable Daily Intake should be increased


Ms. Bimala Dahal

 Ms. Dahal who is a Local Organic Farmer key statements were as follows:

  • C graded palm oil has been used in Nepal, oil related farming is a neglected issue
  • Large amount of pesticide has been used in this kind of farming
  • When taking about the issue of pesticide, the topic of soil is not often discussed. Discussions related to the quality of soil has to be raised for pesticide minimization.
  • Farmers often tend to use hybrid seed which is also an issue
  • Lack of sufficient market for organic products is also a major hurdle for the transition into organic farming
  • IPM and sufficient market is very important for organic farming


Remarks from Chief Guest – Dr. Bishnu Raj Upreti

Dr. Upreti who is the Executive Chairperson of Policy Research Institute key statements were as follows:

  • Pesticide is the concern of the entire nation not just of a single sector
  • Lack of co-ordination among the high-level authority is the major problem
  • Fundamental change is required
  • Discussion should be done with the key stakeholders regarding their respective duties and responsibilities
  • Policies should be formulated on the basis of evidences
  • Policies should be measurable, quantifiable and more specific
  • Health and Agriculture are related to the citizens of the country hence the policies related to it should be formulated on the basis of the evidence.




On September 2,   2022, NPHF completed its 13th Annual General Meeting in the presence of founding members, life members and other members and stakeholders.

Since the establishment of Nepal Public Health Foundation (NPHF), it has taken initiatives to raise voices and advocate the relevant public health issues at national and regional level.


Continuing the tradition, this year we had a privilege to honor Dr. Ram Prasad Pokhrel and Dr. Saraswati Padhye  with NPHF Life Time Achievement Award 2022 for contributions made  in the field of public health  as well as the years of service dedicated by them.